The exterior exposed steel is protected with a flame applied aluminum finish. The center hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls provide the torsional resistance of the structure similar to a closed tube or axle. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. Each wing, with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The Khalifa's Tower and Podium structures are currently under construction (Figure 3) and the project is scheduled for topping out in 2008. Other Names. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. It consists of series high-strength reinforced concrete walls: a strong central core is connected to three building wings. Reinforcement was typically at 300mm spacing in the raft, and arranged such that every 10lh bar in each direction was omitted, resulting in a series of "pour enhancement strips" throughout the raft at which 600 mm x 600 mm openings at regular intervals facilitated access and concrete placement. This system was introduced by Fazlur Rahman Khan while at the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), in their Chicago office. Market: Commercial + Office, Hospitality, Mixed Use, Residential, National Geographic Features Burj Khalifa and William Baker in Engineering Marvels Series, The Man Behind the Wonders – Bill Baker Reveals the Secrets of Structural Engineering, William F. Baker in The Engineers on BBC World Service, Structural Engineers Association of Illinois, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI), Award of Merit: World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby, GCC Technical Building Project of the Year, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure, International Projects Category: Outstanding Project, National Council of Structural Engineers Association, Special Recognition for Technological Advancement, 875 North Michigan Avenue – Structural Engineering, Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) – Structural Engineering, Poly Real Estate Headquarters – Structural Engineering, Poly Corporation Headquarters – Structural Engineering. Figure 1. ... For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system… At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. The Burj Khalifa tower is crowned with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. The construction began on 6 January 2004 and ended in the year 2010. The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 ft) thick and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self consolidating concrete (SCC). The second mode is a perpendicular lateral side sway with a period of 10.2 seconds. High performance concrete with high compressive strength Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. Its 160 floors have a number of uses including residential units, office spaces and hotel rooms. The setbacks are organized such that the Tower's width changes at each setback. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. Search this site. Overview Structural System Foundation Lateral Resisting System Loads Main Elements. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. Wind Engineering Design Construction of the tower was started in 2004. Adrian Smith is the man for the structural and architectural design of Burj Khalifa. The three-dimensional analysis model consisted of the reinforced concrete walls, link beams, slabs, raft, piles, and the spire structural steel system. Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai - "Y" shaped in plan - to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructibility. In structural engineering, the tube is a system where, to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, impact), a building is designed to act like a hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large Structural System The Spiraling Y shaped was utilized shape the structural core of the Burj Khalifa. The superstructure has reached over 165 stories. Architecture. The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete, incorporating a viscosity modifying admixture with a slump flow of 675 +/- 75mm to limit the possibility of defects during construction. Burj Khalifa in Dubai. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes. The “Y” shaped plan also provided a stable platform on which to base the development of a new “buttressed core” structural system specially developed to support a building of this height while maintaining the tower’s slender and elegant shape. Dr. Max Irvine (with Structural Mechanics & Dynamics Consulting Engineers located in Sydney Australia) developed site specific seismic reports for the project including a seismic hazard analysis. Phase I; 23 Boreholes (three with pressuremeter testing) with depths up to 90m. This allows the construction to proceed without the normal difficulties associated with column transfers. stringent crack control design criteria, and cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh (Figure 13) with an impressed current. At 828 meters in height, the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertain-ment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Structural System. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting. The wall concrete specified strengths ranged from C80 to C60 cube strength and utilized Portland cement and fly ash. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. To combat the wind forces and seismic forces, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y’ shape. The advantage of the tower's stepping and shaping is, in essence, to “confuse the wind.” Wind vortexes can never sufficiently coalesce because the wind encounters a different building shape at each tier. At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. d) Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. In order to rise to the great heights, a proper structural support is necessary. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. Overcoming this problem was a challenge and a great inovation to the world of structural … The Burj Khalifa Project is the tallest structure ever built by man; the tower is 828 meters tall and compromise of 162 floors above grade and 3 basement levels. Burj Khalifa. 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