Weigh out 5 grams of potato chips. Then we came to the final part of our experiment, which was to take a normal version of a product (Pringles) and to compare it to its low-fat version. Considering that taking 25% off the regular fat content gives a fat content of 25.61%, the average for the low fat Pringles is significant since it is 3.66% lower than the required amount. 2. Another part of that experiment was to test whether the mass of the thimble containing the chips could change while it was drying. This was then put into the Soxhlet apparatus and the experiment was started. The second part of our experiment was to determine the number of siphons that needed to be done in order to get all the fat out of the sample used. When they were done, the heat was turned off and the thimble was removed and left in the fume hood to dry out. It also defines a product that claims to be lower in fat to require that the fat content be reduced by at least 25% (compared to the regular product). To do so, a pastry containing a known amount of fat was prepared. Lab Activity Determination of Fat in Potato Chips - YouTube Then a graph was made with the percentages of fat found in each samples as a function of the number of cycles done. The amount of fat in a substance can be determined by taking the mass of the substance before and after the extraction. Determine the mass of a clean, dry 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. The first part of our experiment was to determine how efficient the Soxhlet method was. Petroleum ether is mixed with chips to extract the fat. After separating the solvent mixture from the chips, the petroleum ether is allowed to evaporate, leaving behind the fat, which can then be weighed. To be able to know the amount of fat put into the pastry, it was prepared with lard (pure fat), taken in the chemistry laboratory and which had been previously weighed, water and flour. When the extraction is complete, you will be able to see, touch, and smell the lipid in the Petri dishes and be able to determine if it contains saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. The first time, we did only one cycle and stopped the experiment. The thimble was weighed, as well as the chips. Label 1 100mL beaker with the following: Potato Chips. To do this, chips were bought (Yum Yum Riplet sour cream & onion flavour deluxe) and crushed into small pieces the same way as with the pastry. Break into dime-size pieces with your fingers. The thimble was taken out and left to dry as with the pastry experiment. These two masses were added together to give the total mass of the thimble containing the chips. It was discovered that the average fat content of the regular Pringles chips was 34.14% and that the average fat content of the reduced fat Pringles was 21.95%. Health Canada defines a low fat product as having a fat content of 15% of the mass in dry state. What was to be determined in this experiment was if the difference in the amount of fat found in both was significant enough to be able to say that one of them was really low in fat or if the difference was to small to be taken into account. Chips were chosen as a substance because they contain very high levels of fat, but also because they were easy to crumble and they were solid. 2. 4. If the change in the mass had been significant enough, this would have meant that it would have had to be taken into account when finding the mass of the fat extracted from the sample. Break into dime sized pieces with your fingers. The experiment was then started (the heat was turned on) and 8 siphons were done. Aside for that, the test should be fairly accurate, with little room for error, especially error involving human intervention as there was very little of this. All experimental trials showed that the fat-free Pringles have substantial fat in them. Since the Soxhlet apparatus was found to be only about 95% effective, the fat contents obtained may be a little below the actual fat contents of the product. This percentage of error with the lard was minimised by meticulous scraping, but there still remained a certain amount in the containers when transfers were made during the making of the pastry. The week following that, the dry thimble containing chips was weighed and the difference between the starting mass and the final mass was calculated and the amount of fat was found that way. An average of the percentages of fat found was then made for each kind of Pringles. The pastry was weighed and crushed into small pieces with a mortar and pestle. It was discovered that the average fat content of the regular Pringles chips was 34.14% and that the average fat content of the reduced fat Pringles was 21.95%. Determination of Fat in Potato Chips Obtain between 5 and 10 g of potato chips. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate whether or not the products that claim to be low in fat are really what they claim. And if they are, the significance of the difference in the amount of fat was being determined. If the low in fat Pringles claim to be reduced in fat, they will then have a lower fat content of at least 25% compared to the regular Pringles. Efficiency of extraction refers to the precision and accuracy of extraction of fat from the chips. The ether, being very non-polar, dissolves the fat in the substance and allows it to pass through the filter and out of the sample. Even the test that was conducted to test the efficiency of the Soxhlet apparatus had a good degree of error since lard was used and lard has a tendency to stick to whatever container it is put in. The next week, when the thimble containing the pastry was completely dry, it was weighed. Efficiency of Extraction = (Experimental % Fat / Theoretical % Fat in Chips ) x 100 = ( 27.4 / 39 ) x 100 = 70.2 %. The same experiment was done doing 3, 5, 8, and 13 cycles. The two averages were then compared and conclusions about that product were made. *To determine the percentage of the fat in potato chip (Pringles original flavor) Pringles Original Flavor Petroleum Ether 3. Extraction of Fat from Potato Chips. Add 5 g of crushed potato chips to the flask and determine the mass of the flask and crushed chips. The fat was extracted by using a Soxhlet apparatus which functions by dripping pure ether through a fat-containing substance. All measurements were taken by a balance with little human intervention and no other measurements were taken, resulting in a minimal uncertainty caused by the scientists. Other substances that were high in fat tended to be in the form of a gel or a cream, which would tend to block the pores of the thimble, preventing the extraction of the fat. Part 2: Extraction of Fat from Potato Chips 1. Among these is found the amount of fat found in the product. My extraction of fat from the chips, 37.8 % was very close to the theoretical fat, 39 %. This was the point of interest of our experiment. This was put into the thimble, which had been previously weighed, and then put into the Soxhlet apparatus. Two kinds of Pringles were therefore taken (low fat and regular) and the fat was extracted from several samples of each of them (three of each) using the same method as previously explained. If such a thing had occurred, it would have been either because of humidity or because of any other factor. This way, we knew that the only fat present in the pastry was the one coming from the lard. Considering that taking 25% off the regular fat content gives a fat content of 25.61%, the average for the low fat Pringles is significant since it is 3.66% lower than the required amount. All foods that we find on the market have nutrition information written on. Then the difference in mass was calculated and the efficiency was determine by comparing the expected amount of fat with the observed amount of fat. Place them in a small plastic bag and crush them. 1. We expected the Soxhlet apparatus to be more effective, since our informational sources all agreed to give more dissolving power to ether than to an hexane:isopropanol solution. However, the experiment is still considered effective since the goal was to compare two products and both products were tested in the same way, which means that they should have the same percentage of error. Repeat steps 2−9 in Part 1. With the samples made of 20 g of Pringles Chips, the % fat extracted of the solvent was (in average, taking into account the % efficiency measured above) 34.2%, and that of the Soxhlet, 35.4%. Weigh out 5g of potato chips. The method followed was the same as with the pastry. Since it is required that products that declare themselves as reduced in fat have at least 25% less than the regular versions, the reduced fat Pringles were well within the required range. With this graph, it was then possible to find the number of siphons needed in order to get all of the fat out of the samples by finding the value at which the curve levels off. The way this was done was to put a known amount of chips in a beaker and to leave it at the same place as the thimble for a similar period of time so that it would be possible to know if the mass of these chips would change.
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