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stream The huge numbers of spatulae on its setae provide a gecko, shown in Figure 7, with a large total surface area for sticking to a surface. /F1 -12 Tf (credit: modification of work by “Sam-Cat”/Flickr). endobj endobj Q << /Length 0 /F1 -12 Tf q We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and useful place to hang out. >> 25 0 obj >> ET q 63 0 obj Q /Supplement 0 ET << <0014><0014><0031> /BaseFont/HNHROX+TimesNewRoman,Bold q /Length 0 >> endstream stream Bonds and intermolecular forces have one very fundamental thing in common. How are they similar? endstream >> <0030><0030><004D> /CS/DeviceRGB <0013><0013><0030> endobj endobj stream −85 °C. 88 0 obj 1 0 0 -1 0 792 cm -100 Tz The ordering from lowest to highest boiling point is expected to be CH4 < SiH4 < GeH4 < SnH4. /Length 76 Tell us a little about yourself to get started. q stream 27.75 126.9434 Td <0016000C> Tj 7. stream << q /Contents[820 0 R 821 0 R 822 0 R 823 0 R 824 0 R 825 0 R 826 0 R 827 0 R 828 0 R 829 0 R 830 0 R 831 0 R 832 0 R 833 0 R 834 0 R 836 0 R 837 0 R 838 0 R 839 0 R 840 0 R 841 0 R 842 0 R 843 0 R 844 0 R 845 0 R 846 0 R 847 0 R 848 0 R 849 0 R 851 0 R 852 0 R 853 0 R 854 0 R 855 0 R 856 0 R 857 0 R 858 0 R 859 0 R 860 0 R 861 0 R 862 0 R 863 0 R 864 0 R 865 0 R 866 0 R 867 0 R 868 0 R 869 0 R 870 0 R 871 0 R 872 0 R 873 0 R 874 0 R 875 0 R 876 0 R 880 0 R 881 0 R 882 0 R 883 0 R 884 0 R 885 0 R 886 0 R 887 0 R 888 0 R 889 0 R 890 0 R 891 0 R 892 0 R 893 0 R 894 0 R 895 0 R 896 0 R 897 0 R 898 0 R 899 0 R 900 0 R 901 0 R 902 0 R 903 0 R 904 0 R 905 0 R 906 0 R 907 0 R] >> /Length 239 /CIDInit /ProcSet findresource begin A and T share two hydrogen bonds, C and G share three, and both pairings have a similar shape and structure Figure 13. If not, then what is the strongest force? Why do the boiling points of the noble gases increase in the order He < Ne < Ar < Kr < Xe? >> <> /CS/DeviceRGB /GS0 gs <0028><0028><0045> /GS0 gs /F1 36 0 R /MediaBox[0 0 612 792] begincmap BT 53 0 obj endobj In the following description, the term particle will be used to refer to an atom, molecule, or ion. q /Type/Page endcodespacerange /CIDSystemInfo << /Registry (Adobe)/Ordering (UCS)/Supplement 0>> def <001B><001B><0038> endstream q stream /GS0 gs Q >> q 109 0 obj endstream In 2000, Kellar Autumn, who leads a multi-institutional gecko research team, found that geckos adhered equally well to both polar silicon dioxide and nonpolar gallium arsenide. BT <0058><0058><0075> /GS0 gs /Length 0 >> /XHeight 447 Hydrogen bonds are a special type of dipole-dipole attraction that results when hydrogen is bonded to one of the three most electronegative elements: F, O, or N. 1. Arrange each of the following sets of compounds in order of increasing boiling point temperature: On the basis of intermolecular attractions, explain the differences in the boiling points of. For example, to overcome the IMFs in one mole of liquid HCl and convert it into gaseous HCl requires only about 17 kilojoules. 1 0 0 -1 0 792 cm -100 Tz endstream >> /GS0 12 0 R >> /Length 91 endstream /BaseFont/ABFIFH+TimesNewRoman << /GS0 gs aused by the positive dipole of one molecule being attracted to the negative dipole of another. endobj 100 0 obj endobj stream << /F1 -12 Tf << Intermolecular forces are the attractions between molecules, which determine many of the physical properties of a substance. 1 0 0 -1 0 792 cm -100 Tz /GS0 gs occurs when exceptionally strong dipoles attract; bonding that exists when hydrogen is bonded to one of the three most electronegative elements: F, O, or N, induced dipole endstream temporary dipole formed when the electrons of an atom or molecule are distorted by the instantaneous dipole of a neighboring atom or molecule, instantaneous dipole >> The measure of how easy or difficult it is for another electrostatic charge (for example, a nearby ion or polar molecule) to distort a molecule’s charge distribution (its electron cloud) is known as polarizability. 94 0 obj /F1 -12 Tf 17. /FontBBox[-568 -307 2000 1007] >> <0049><0049><0066> /GS0 gs stream /GS0 gs /MediaBox[0 0 612 792] endobj Need tips :), Struggling to make your uni choices? << 43.5 236.4434 Td <0026004B004F00520055004C00510048000300500052004F004800460058004F004800560003004B0044005900480003005A Explain why the boiling points of Neon and HF differ. q Neon and HF have approximately the same molecular masses. is a level 2 qualification equivilant to a gcse?? >> ET endobj 97 0 obj << /GS0 gs By curling and uncurling their toes, geckos can alternate between sticking and unsticking from a surface, and thus easily move across it. 18 0 obj 27.75 142.6934 Td <0017000C> Tj /F1 -12 Tf Q /GS0 12 0 R <0017><0017><0034> Dispersion forces result from the formation of temporary dipoles, as illustrated here for two nonpolar diatomic molecules. endobj >> Q >> /F0 -12 Tf stream 43.5 95.4434 Td <00560057005500520051004A0048005500030046005200590044004F004800510057000300450052005100470056> Tj >> <0051><0051><006E> Q Q There are three basic intermolecular forces that a molecule can experience. stream 43.5 390.1934 Td <00460044005800560048004700030045005C0003005800510048005400580044004F00030046004B00440055004A00480003 endstream Neopentane molecules are the most compact of the three, offering the least available surface area for intermolecular contact and, hence, the weakest dispersion forces. Q /XObject /Length 140 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is found in every living organism and contains the genetic information that determines the organism’s characteristics, provides the blueprint for making the proteins necessary for life, and serves as a template to pass this information on to the organism’s offspring. <002E><002E><004B> My chemistry lab teacher never explained this … endobj 103 0 obj q << <0056><0056><0073> /F1 -12 Tf Q Dipole-dipole interaction has the strongest intermolecular forces. >> /F0 -12 Tf >> stream 6 767.25 m Q 193.5 12.4756 Td <002C005100570048005500500052004F004800460058004F0044005500030029005200550046004800560003003300550044 endstream ET Dipole-Dipole Interaction. endstream Intermolecular Forces (IMF) and Solutions. Select the Solid, Liquid, Gas tab. /Length 77 /GS0 gs endstream << /F0 16 0 R /I false 168.75 308.2354 Td <0016> Tj <0059><0059><0076> The more compact shape of isopentane offers a smaller surface area available for intermolecular contact and, therefore, weaker dispersion forces. What differences do you notice? The electrostatic attraction between the partially positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and the partially negative atom in another molecule gives rise to a strong dipole-dipole interaction called a hydrogen bond (example: $\text{HF}\cdots \text{HF}$. Q stream 1 0 0 -1 0 792 cm -100 Tz <005C><005C><0079> ET >> Move the Ne atom on the right and observe how the potential energy changes. <004A><004A><0067> 67 0 obj []0 d /Length 203 Q 57 0 obj endobj q 20 0 obj For example, liquid water forms on the outside of a cold glass as the water vapor in the air is cooled by the cold glass, as seen in Figure 2. Water (H2O, molecular mass 18 amu) is a liquid, even though it has a lower molecular mass. stream endstream BT Finally, CH3CH2OH has an −OH group, and so it will experience the uniquely strong dipole-dipole attraction known as hydrogen bonding. 15 0 obj Inside the lighter’s fuel compartment, the butane is compressed to a pressure that results in its condensation to the liquid state, as shown in Figure 3. >> /Length 0 60 0 obj 77 0 obj endstream stream stream /CS/DeviceRGB /Length 88 Q << 005A004B005C0003004F0052005A00030057004800500053004800550044005700580055004800030044005100470003