“Danes set EU vote for September”: from BBC News 28 February 2005. The Constitution established Belgium as a centralised unitary state. Extension: What are International Organizations? Article 13 determines that everyone has the right to go to court. – Article 105 of the Belgian Constitution. Article 165 provides that the law can create agglomerations and federations of municipalities. The Constitution of 1831 was a highly visible national symbol of Belgian nationalism throughout the 19th century. This court has the authority to examine whether a law or a decree is in compliance with Title II and Articles 170, 172 and 191. The official version of the Constitution of 1831 was written in French and was only comprehensible to part of the national population. This treaty has been followed up by others, such as the Maastricht Treaty and the Amsterdam Treaty. Article 166 describes how the preceding article applies to the municipalities of the Brussels Region. Since 2003, the Belgian Court of Arbitration, which is known now as the Constitutional Court, can examine whether laws, decrees or ordinances are in compliance with Title II and with Articles 170, 172 and 191 (on the equality of Belgians and foreigners and the prohibition of tax discrimination) of the Constitution. Who were the main players in drafting the Constitution? What are some arguments for and against the Lisbon Treaty. Article 96 provides that the King appoints and dismisses his ministers. It is subdivided into two subsections on, respectively, the Community and Regional Parliaments and the Community and Regional Governments. “French say firm ‘No’ to EU Treaty”: from BBC news, 30 May 2005. A.V. The Lisbon Treaty added many new policy areas to the list of those on which decisions are made by the co-decision procedure. 3 In Brussels a different government was made in which again equal representation of both the commumity was made compulsion. After the revolution's initial success, an elected National Congress was convened in November 1830 to create a devise a political order for the new state. The European Union continues to operate based on existing treaties which were most recently amended by the Lisbon Treaty which was ratified by the member states in 2009. The Treaty establishing the European Community in March 1957, formed the basis of what has become the European Union. Article 163 stipulates that the functions of the provincial organs are exercised in the extraprovincial Brussels-Capital Region by the institutions of the Flemish Community, the French Community, the Common Community Commission and the Region. The Belgian Government subsequently declared him unable to reign on 4 April 1990 and the ministers signed and promulgated the bill instead. Chapter VI, which is titled The judicial power, describes the organisation of the Belgian court system. People still had a number of concerns regarding the possibility of losing representation in the European Commission during certain years and being forced to make some changes to their national constitution. It further stipulates that the use of a specific language can only be imposed by law and only for the proceedings and acts of the public authorities and for legal proceedings. In accordance with Article 129, the Flemish Parliament and the Parliament of the French Community are also responsible for legislation regarding the use of languages in administration and the conduct of official business, in education and in the relations between employers and their personnel, within certain limits. As three modern historians describe: The 1831 constitution was [...] a compromise between the landowners and clergy on the one hand and the liberal middle class on the other. On 29 October 2004, the Heads of State or Government of the then 25 Member States of the European Union signed the treaty establishing the European Constitution. The Lisbon Treaty was drafted to make these changes since the Constitution had not been able to. Article 127 of subsection I provides that the Flemish Parliament and the Parliament of the French Community are responsible for cultural matters and education, however, the Communities are, with regard to education, not responsible for determining the age at which compulsory education begins and ends, the minimum conditions for awarding degrees and pensions. Article 121 establishes the Flemish Government, the Government of the French Community and the Government of the German-speaking Community and provides that each region shall also have a government. Why is the Lisbon Treaty Important? The third paragraph of this article determines that everyone has the right to education, with respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms, and that education shall be free in its compulsory stages. Article 162 establishes the principles of the organisation of the provincial and municipal institutions, such as the direct election of the members of the provincial and the municipal councils. The most important impact of a constitution for the EU was that it could make the EU a legal entity. The Lisbon Treaty was drafted to make these changes since the Constitution had not been able to. The borders of the language areas can be changed or corrected only by a law supported by specific majorities of each language group of each Chamber. Article 6 determines that the provinces can be subdivided only by Law. It also provides that no administrative jurisdiction can be established except by law. In October 2009 Irish Citizens were asked to vote for the Treaty again with these new promises from the European Union, and the Treaty was passed! In 1999, this article was amended to include a provision that "press-related offences inspired by racism or xenophobia" are not tried by a jury. One of the most important changes was the introduction of the Court of Arbitration, whose competencies were expanded by a special law of 2003, to include Title II (Articles 8 to 32), and the Articles 170, 172 and 191 of the Constitution. 1. It also stipulates that those who lose their right to the crown in this manner, can be restored to the line of succession with the consent of both Chambers of the Federal Parliament. Activity 4: The European Parliament – How does it work? Article 74 determines the cases in which the federal legislative power is exercised only by the King and the Chamber of Representatives, and not by the Senate. It is divided into three sections, each of which contains only one article: Section I on the prevention of competency conflicts, Section II on the Constitutional Court and Section III on the prevention and resolution of conflicts of interest.
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