Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin.. The most important processes for converting the energy trapped in chemical substances into energy useful to sustain life are metabolism and cellular respiration.. , Traditionally, living things have been divided into five kingdoms: Monera; Protista; Fungi; Plantae; Animalia. The cell is also considered to be the basic unit in many pathological processes. A merging draft, BioCode, was published in 1997 in an attempt to standardize nomenclature in these three areas, but has yet to be formally adopted. Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer). Learn list short form biology with free interactive flashcards. If we understand how life originated on earth, we can predict more reliably which conditions are required to generate life on other planets. The study of these systems is shared with such medically oriented disciplines as neurology and immunology. A microscopic bacterium responding to a local sugar gradient is responding to its environment as much as a lion searching for food in the African savanna. Within organisms, genetic information is physically represented as chromosomes, within which it is represented by a particular sequence of amino acids in particular DNA molecules. Homo is the genus, and sapiens the species. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. That said, there are countless career options, ranging from basic science to industrial or agricultural applications. These are the main branches of biology:[a], Science that studies life and living organisms, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, universal common ancestor of all organisms, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, "Aquarena Wetlands Project glossary of terms", "Self-organization and entropy reduction in a living cell", "How Did Life Become Complex, And Could It Happen Beyond Earth? Biology Form 2 Notes (4) This category contains Biology form 2 notes as aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB,etc. The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology, although population biology is more frequently used in the case of diseases, viruses, and microbes, while the term population ecology is more commonly applied to the study of plants and animals. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory. The first to borrow it was the English and French (biologie). Nearly all such organisms originally draw their energy from the sun. "biology."  (A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in that organism provide insight into the workings of other organisms.). The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) used biologi in his Bibliotheca Botanica. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. A revised BioCode that, instead of replacing the existing codes, would provide a unified context for them, was proposed in 2011. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China.  However, it was the British naturalist Charles Darwin, combining the biogeographical approach of Humboldt, the uniformitarian geology of Lyell, Malthus's writings on population growth, and his own morphological expertise and extensive natural observations, who forged a more successful evolutionary theory based on natural selection; similar reasoning and evidence led Alfred Russel Wallace to independently reach the same conclusions.  This field overlaps with other areas of biology, particularly those of genetics and biochemistry. All living organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis..
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