The same database is used for datasets related to the production of chemicals (including lime and sulfuric acid) again adapted to Thailand for the inputs of electricity, heat and water. The use of renewable energy has a significant impact (> 10% reduction) on GWP and NREU while the gypsum-free process also reduces particulate matter and acidification. However, India’s sugar inventories are still expected grow. The sugarcane crop production has large impacts on most of the environmental impact categories analyzed including GWP, water, eutrophication, acidification and particulate matter and, inevitably, land use. To cover these requirements and to ensure reliable results, first-hand industry data in combination with background LCI information from Ecoinvent V3.3 allocation default and Agri-footprint V2.0 datasets. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.131, De Rosa M, Knudsen MT, Hermansen JE (2015) A comparison of land use change models: challenges and future developments. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-019-01525-9, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-019-01525-9, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most widely used commercial bio-based plastic with characteristics similar to polystyrene, polypropylene or polyethylene . The GHG emissions related to the sugarcane production were mainly due to N2O emissions resulting from the application of nitrogen fertilizers and crop residues (42%) and to DLUC (30%). The main impacts of PLA production are related to the agricultural feedstock production and to the manufacturing process of PLA from sugar. These steps consumed fossil energy as heat and electricity (61%). From a cradle-to-gate perspective, considering the uptake of carbon dioxide in the PLA molecule, the GWP is 501 kg CO2 eq/ton PLA. Meaningful impact results for water scarcity require specific water consumption data and spatially differentiated characterization factors. Sugar imports from Thailand enjoy upswing following ATIGA enforcement. The water consumption in the sugar mill is low because the treated water effluent from the mill is returned and re-used to irrigate the nearby farms. Water 6:1698–1718. A strong domestic currency means lower returns from exports. Areas of High Conservation Value include: species diversity, landscape ecosystems and habitats, community needs and cultural values. These GHG emissions were largely related to the consumption of energy, which accounts for 40% of the total emissions. In many applications where recycling is a challenge, options such as composting or anaerobic digestion can help to divert organic waste from landfill or incineration. The Thai authorities’ prediction is in line with a U.S. Department of Agriculture report in April, which expected cane and sugar output to fall, citing reduced sugarcane acreage as farmers turn to more profitable crops. We are Leading Exporter and Supplier of Food and Fertilizer Products with Several Grades from Multiple Origins. Cogener Distrib Gener J 24:6–33. REU was mainly related to the energy content of sugarcane which ends up as sugar for PLA but also as bagasse used as an energy source in the sugar mill. Harvesting takes place annually and is therefore mostly manual (90%). If the sugarcane yields approach the maximum of 110 ton/ha, the following reductions can be attained: land use 26%, water consumption 24%, marine eutrophication 24%, terrestrial eutrophication 14% and GWP 5%. The use of lower amounts of N and P has a positive impact on the reduction of eutrophication and acidification, and, indirectly on GWP because of N2O emissions. Decline in sugar production of Thailand along with India is expected help improve world sugar prices. http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/biotechnology/bio-based-products_en. Burning is not desirable because it reduces sugar yields, releases a number of air pollutants and impacts the soil quality. Based on this analysis, and the relevant impact categories analysis in this study, the future scenarios on sugar production cover: Sugarcane yield of 110 ton/ha, reaching the genetic potential range of 94–112 ton/ha . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.07.017, Jenjariyakosoln S, Sajjakulnukit B, Garivait S (2013) Energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential of sugarcane field residues power generation in Thailand. Transport of raw materials used distances from suppliers and assumes truck freight transport. Acidification is mainly caused by air emissions of NH3, NO2 and SOX which, when deposited in the soil, cause a change in its acidity. As primary data actual industrial data were used for the sugar production, lactic acid production (Corbion) and PLA production (Total Corbion PLA), including various recently developed process insights. Energy Policy 36:1589–1599. The environmental performance these products are generally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a well established methodology that uses a holistic approach to identify trade-offs between impact categories and to avoid shifting burdens over the value chain. Nutrition Facts Of Sugar. Natural gas is used to produce the heat required for the various conversion steps of sugar to PLA. Despite the high potential of these alternative processes they require large modifications in the manufacturing facilities and are likely to be implemented only in new plants. Raw sugar futures are expected to rise a further 3pc by the end of the year, boosted by a tightening in supplies, a Reuters poll of 12 traders and analysts showed on Friday. This study is based on high-resolution satellite images and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) time series analysis, with focus on LUC, protected areas and carbon stock covering the plantations around the key Corbion sugar supplier (50 km radius). The baseline water stress measures the ratio of total annual water withdrawals to total available annual renewable supply, accounting for upstream consumptive use. Nature 517:187, CAS Because of the scope of this study is cradle-to-gate approach (1) is followed, as recommended for biobased chemicals [23, 27]. As the cane is crushed, hot water (or a combination of hot water and recovered impure juice) is sprayed onto the crushed cane counter currently as it leaves each mill for diluting. According to McGlade and Akins, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of the gas reserves and over 80 percent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C global warming, compared to pre-industrial levels . Both studies confirm that the largest contributions to land use and PM are in the sugar production phase, while for AP the most relevant process is sulfuric acid production For the remaining impact categories, a comparison cannot be made due to difference in the impact methods and inventory data available.
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