York, Robert, The swords of December, New York: Scribner, 1978. Odilo Engels examines in his essay the extraordinarily complicated legal, political and dynastic rigmarole of conflicting claims which did, nevertheless, have the outcome, under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, of peaceably restoring Bavaria to Henry the Lion in 1156. ." Encyclopedia.com. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Encyclopedia.com. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Butler, Margaret, This turbulent priest, London: Macmillan, 1977. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Henry the Lion. Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child. He reigned from 1154 to 1189 and founded the Plantagenet dynasty of English rulers. Krönung (Eheschließung?) He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused. In the same year the Saxon duchy was divided into two parts. [Bearbeiten]. Ex-husband of Clementia von Zähringen He restored and extended royal authority, supervised great legal reforms, and clashed with Thomas Becket. His violent temper and his enormous energy soon became proverbial; he was constantly on the move, surprising friend and foe and exhausting his followers by his long journeys. Returning (1013) to Italy, Henry was crowned (1014) Holy Roman emperor at Rome. So wurde auf dem Merseburger Reichstag im Juni 1152 ein Streit zwischen dem Löwen und dem Bremer Erzbischof Hartwig verhandelt. Finally both allied with Philip against their father, who was forced to make a humiliating peace and died 2 days later (July 6, 1189). The new king was a tough, intelligent young man of 21, well educated, ambitious, and ruthless. He had already forced his brother Geoffrey to take money instead of the county of Anjou, promised to Geoffrey by their father. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Henry+%22The+Lion%22, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Henrique, infante de Portugal, duque de Viseu, senhor da Covilha, Henry A. Wallace Institute for Alternative Agriculture. Die gleiche Funktion erfüllte auch die Besetzung mehrerer süddeutscher Bischofsstühle mit staufertreuen Amtsträgern. (Grabplatte im Vordergrund). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The first serious quarrel was about the punishment of clergy accused of crimes; Henry wanted at least the right to punish them when convicted, but Thomas claimed them for the Church courts. Henry the Lion was the only son of Henry the Proud, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, and Gertrude, the daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Lothar III. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. He was known for his piety and charity, but his reign…, Henry I Im Herbst 1151 misslang ein Überfall Konrads auf Braunschweig, das Herrschaftszentrum Heinrichs. Henry VI (1421-1471) was king of England from 1422 to 1461 and in 1470-1471. By treaties with the merchants of Gotland and the princes of Sweden and Novgorod, he considerably enhanced Lübeck’s position as a commercial centre. Fry, Christopher, Play, London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1971. Im selben Jahr verhinderte er einen Versuch Konrads III., die Frauenklöster Kemnade und Fischbeck der Reichsabtei Corvey zu unterstellen und damit den königlichen Einfluss in Sachsen zu steigern. ." He broke with Frederick in 1176 and in consequence was deprived of most of his lands and was exiled twice (1181–85; 1189–90). Es kam dabei ebenso wenig zu einer Entscheidung wie bei einem Treffen von Heinrich mit dem Kaiser zwischen Haldensleben und Magdeburg, da sich Heinrich den Forderungen nicht beugen wollte. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. But the Sicilian inheritance of Constance was another matter. In die Auseinandersetzungen um die dänische Thronfolge hatte er bereits zuvor eingegriffen. Allerdings zögerte sich die endgültige Klärung dieser Frage hinaus, unter anderem, weil Heinrich auch in Sachsen mit Problemen kämpfen musste. ." Partner of NN (Ida ?) When Valdemar I, king of Denmark, conquered the island of Rügen, in the Baltic Sea, a long, drawn-out struggle broke out between him and Henry that lasted until 1171, when the dispute was settled and Henry’s daughter married Valdemar’s son. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. In the next 4 years he reasserted his overlordship of Scotland, the Welsh princes, and Brittany and married his eldest son to the daughter of the King of France; she brought as her dowry the Norman Vexin. Henry's vast Continental domains (he ruled about half the area of present-day France) were to occupy him for much of his reign, but his first objective was to restore order and royal authority to an England ravaged by civil war. Professor of Medieval and Modern History, Christian Albrecht University of Kiel, West Germany. Beispiele sind das Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen, Der deutsche Lucidarius und Eilhart von Oberg. By 1173 Henry seemed to have overcome all opposition. , in alliance with Philip IIPhilip IIor Philip Augustus,1165–1223, king of France (1180–1223), son of Louis VII. Eleanor and his three eldest sons now allied against him with King Louis VII of France, the Count of Flanders, King William of it caused conflict because both the Church and monarchs claimed the same powers. In dieser Lage griff Friedrich I. selbst in den Konflikt ein. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Butler, Margaret, The lion of Christ, New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1977. an. Henry faithfully supported his older cousin, the Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his Saxon knights. By an invasion of England in 1153, he finally forced King StephenStephen,1097?–1154, king of England (1135–54). by his second wife, Matilda, daughter of King Henry II of England (married 1168): Matilda (1171-1210), married Godfrey, Count of Perche, and Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy, Richenza (1172-1204), was engaged to King Valdemar II of Denmark, Henry V, Count Palatine of the Rhine (c. 1173-1227), Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Swabia (c. 1175-1218).
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