41) were summarized by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment 42).
2011;11(8):7302-13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231706/. 2008. Hazard class: N/A. Information on the stability of the salts of the benzoic acid in food is very limited, but the benzoate anion is chemically stable, and degradation in food or reactions with food components are not anticipated, with the exception of the reaction with ascorbic acid under certain conditions (see benzoic acid hazards below). Benzene, p. 322. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. However it was considered that further monitoring would be useful although no further formal action was considered necessary by the Commission at this time”.
Most foods are allowed no more than 1,000 mg per kilogram. Benzoic acid is also produced when gut bacteria process polyphenols (from ingested fruits or beverages). The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has evaluated benzoic acid and its salts as food additives on a number of occasions. Benzoic acid is non-toxic and stable under ordinary conditions. Under ordinary temperature and pressure, benzoic acid is a stable and non-toxic compound. It is also naturally found in cultured dairy products. Fourth Edition. The developmental toxicity studies in rats with sodium benzoate in the diet, showed NOAELs of 500 mg/kg bw per day (the highest dose tested) and 1310 mg/kg body weight per day, respectively, comparable to or higher than the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw per day in the dietary multigeneration reproductive toxicity in rats with benzoic acid. Held in Brussels on 20 July 2007. Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid, a fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative.
McNeal TP, Nyman PJ, Diachenko GW and Hollifield HC, 1993. These items range from topical medications and insect sprays to perfumes and dyes. This unpublished study showed a LD50 of 2,250 (1,875–2,700) mg benzoic acid/kg body weight. Copyright © 1985-2020Kelleher, Helmrich and Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. SECTION 3 — COMPOSITION, INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS. Steinbrenner N, Löbell-Behrends S, Reusch H, Kuballa T and Lachenmeier DW, 2010. 16719 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical, Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps, Not suspected to be an environmental toxin, Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food, Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any, IJT 36(Suppl 3):5-30, 2017; original IJT 20(S3):23-50, 2001. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Benzoic Acid and Derivatives, in ‘Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of industrial Chemistry’ pp 329-342, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Because benzoic acid is toxic, the amount of benzoates that can be added to foods is carefully controlled.
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. Benzoic acid safety. White crystalline powder.
Food Chemistry and Toxicology 32(2): 103-112. The Panel considered that the acceptable daily intake (ADI) cannot be derived from a prenatal developmental toxicity study with benzoic acid performed by gavage. Benzoic acid is generally recognized as safe; however, adverse effects related to allergic reactions, such as asthma, urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock, metabolic acidosis, and convulsions, have been reported in sensitive individuals following oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure to benzoic acid 10), 11). Benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Held in Brussels on 14 December 2007. From these reproductive and developmental studies, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg/kg body weight per day (expressed as benzoic acid) applying an uncertainty factor of 100. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 693–695. Benzoic acid is an environmental hazard if disposed of improperly. Considering additional exposure from food categories which may contain benzoic acid-benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available, in the refined brand-loyal exposure scenario, the ADI was exceeded at the high level for all population groups and for infants, toddlers, children and adolescent at the mean. Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzoic acid as feed additive for pigs for fattening when used as acidity regulator and all animal species when used as a flavouring. Industries use benzoic acid for the following purposes. SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products), 2005. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Benzoic acid. Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body. The purity of toluene is critical because sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, phenols and olefins inhibit the oxidation reaction. No information was available regarding the manufacture of calcium benzoate; the European Food Safety Authority Panel assumed that it is manufactured similarly, by reaction of benzoic acid with calcium hydroxide, or other calcium salt. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment]), 2005. SECTION 1 — CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION. Store benzoic acid in airtight containers in a dry location. Take a look at this guide to learn about benzoic acid’s uses and chemical safety data. The European Food Safety Authority Panel recommended that when benzoic acid or its salts and ascorbic acid are used together, consideration should be given to the storage of soft drinks and food contact materials to minimize the formation of benzene in beverages as low as reasonably achievable. EC (European Commission), 2007b. Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines. “The Committee noted that the reformulation work by the industry appeared to be working given the limited number of samples in which levels of benzene were above 10 μg/L. © 2020 Flinn Scientific, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Some probably aren't as safe as you'd hope. WHO Food Additives Series, 5. WHO, Geneva. And keep in mind, benzoic acid occurs naturally in some plants. EFSA Journal 2008;6(3):660, 54 pp.
Please review all federal, state and local regulations that may apply before proceeding. Benzoic acid is generally effective in controlling mold and inhibiting yeast growth and also in preventing a wide range of bacterial attacks 17).
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