By his victorious campaigns, he gave Germany peace and security from foreign attack, and the preeminent position that he won as ruler gave him a … The first was a Papal Bull authorising the erection of an archbishopric at Magdeburg, and the second a document known as the Ottonianum in which Otto imitated the Frankish Donations of Pepin and Charlemagne. Otto the Great (Nov. 23, 912—May 7, 973), also known as Duke Otto II of Saxony, was known for consolidating the German Reich and making significant advances for secular influence in papal politics. He deliberately made use of the bishops to strengthen his rule and thus created that “Ottonian church system of the Reich ” that was to provide a stable and long-lasting framework for Germany. But what of his military achievements? His daring military tactics expanded and consolidated Prussian lands, while his domestic policies transformed his kingdom into a modern state ...read more, As a university student, Karl Marx (1818-1883) joined a movement known as the Young Hegelians, who strongly criticized the political and cultural establishments of the day. Bismarck was educated in Berlin and after university took a series of minor diplomatic posts before retiring, at age 24, to run his family’s estate at Kneiphof. Although an arch-conservative, Bismarck introduced progressive reforms—including universal male suffrage and the establishment of the first welfare state—in order to achieve his goals. Meanwhile, back in Germany, Otto's son by Edith, Liudolf, joined together with several German magnates to revolt against the king. In 973, just one year later, Otto I passed away. Yet Henry, who felt he should be king himself in spite of his father's wishes, conspired to murder Otto in 941. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Also known as “the father of nuclear chemistry”, Hahn crusaded against the use of nuclear weapons after World War II. In 1878 Bismarck relented, allying with the Catholics against the growing socialist threat. The young king was bent on asserting the kind of firm control over the dukes that his father had never managed, but this policy led to immediate conflict. Andrea Cefalo is a Medieval fiction author and Medieval history blogger. ), Medieval Germany 911-1250: Volume Two – Essays by German Historians (Basil Blackwell, 1967). Personal loyalty was no longer enough, and the King sought to forge a common ideal amongst those who were becoming increasingly anxious with his inability to effectively safeguard the kingdom against the perpetual threat of invasion. The Battle of Lechfeld (near Augsburg) – “which Widukind, Ruotger, Adalbert of St. Maxim, not to mention the poet of the Modus Ottinc, acclaimed more or less panagyrically as a unique triumph” – has gone down in history as one of the most crucial in the whole development of medieval Christendom. I have shown how Otto the Great shaped the future of Western Europe by uniting its discordant facets and reorganising the fundamental structure of medieval society. One of the most important achievements of Otto’s reign, was the reorganisation of the duchies themselves. He put political enemies into prison. Edith had died in 946, and when the Burgundian princess Adelaide, the widowed queen of Italy, was taken prisoner by Berengar of Ivrea in 951, she turned to Otto for aid. Unsurprisingly, therefore, on 4th December 963 John XII was deposed and Pope Leo VIII elected in his stead. Become a Study.com member to unlock this While all this internal strife was going on, Otto still managed to strengthen his defenses and expand the boundaries of his kingdom. He pioneered the fields of radiochemistry and radioactivity. 0 0. Since 1921, Hitler had led the Nazi Party, a fledgling political group that ...read more, The Reichstag Fire was a dramatic arson attack occurring on February 27, 1933, which burned the building that housed the Reichstag (German parliament) in Berlin. Otto the Great “did not consider that a learned career was incompatible with governmental responsibility”, and it is possible to compare the constitutional tenets of his reign with those of the Shi’ite mullahs in modern-day Iran. But the question of whether Otto the Great was truly successful in his attempts to suppress the tumultuous uprising of 953-4, must remain a bone of contention. She regularly posts about Medieval history on Facebook and Twitter. Otto’s new role as King of Germany was put to the test twice within the first three years of his reign, and the Bavarian (938) and Franconian (939) rebellions – led by Arnulf and Everard respectively – forced Otto to react swiftly. The request was denied, but although Otto had been rather presumptuous in his determined albeit premature efforts to mount the imperial throne, the privileged holder of the Holy Spear of Longinus – which, centuries later would play a vital role in the expansionist aims of both Napoleon and Hitler (and which, today, is housed within the relatively safer confines of the Treasure House at Austria’s Hofsburg Museum) – knew that it would only be a matter of time before he achieved his ultimate Germanic destiny. All Rights Reserved. A united Germany, as it exists today, did not come about until 1871. From its ...read more, Under the cover of darkness in the early morning hours of May 19, 1941, the most formidable battleship to have ever been built slipped into the Baltic Sea on its maiden voyage. The French declared war, but the Prussians and their German allies won handily. He deliberately made use of the bishops to strengthen his rule and thus created that “Ottonian church system of the Reich” that was to provide a stable and long-lasting framework for Germany. Why is Otto Von Bismarck important to history? A year later, Otto’s younger brother Henry revolted, supported by the King Louis IV of France, Giselbert of Lotharingia, and the duke of Franconia—who had only just been forgiven for his previous rebellion against the king. But whilst on the face of it Otto the Great may have appeared to be reducing his own power, he was actually increasing it. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda. Source: quora.com. Copyright NoWhere.News © All rights reserved. ] Thirdly, I will examine how the King granted ‘immunity’ to the German Church, laid the foundations for an Ottonian Renaissance, assisted the Church in its conversion of the Slavs and, finally, managed to successfully manipulate the papacy. The far-reaching practical consequences of the Ottonian system will be discussed in due course, when I examine Otto I’s relationship with the German Church in far greater depth. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. He kept out Slavic and Magyar invaders, resisted France’s claim to Lotharingia, founded three bishoprics in Denmark, and secured his interests in Italy and Burgundy via his marriage to Adelaide of Italy. In 1890 the new king forced Bismarck out. Initially, however, Otto faced a setback. On February 2, 962, John crowned Otto emperor, and 11 days later the treaty known as Privilegium Ottonianum was concluded.
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